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Ja'far al-Sadiq

Ja'far al-Sadiq

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
Ja‘far al-Sādiq
Imams of Shi'a Islam


Sixth Twelver/Musta‘lī Imām
Fifth Nizārī Imām


Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī


Abū ‘Abdillāh


17th Rabī‘ al-Awwal 83 AH
20 April 702 C.E.


25th Shawwāl 148 AH
14 December 765 C.E.




Jannatul Baqī‘, Madīnah

Life Duration

Before Imāmate: 31 years
(83 - 114 AH)
- 12 years with his grandfather Imām as-Sajjād
- 19 years with his father Imām al-Bāqir

Imāmate: 34 years
(114 - 148 AH)


(Arabic for Truthful)
(Arabic for Virtuous)
(Arabic for Pure)
*Altinci Ali
(Turkish for Sixth Ali)


Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah


Muhammad al-Bāqir


Umm Farwa (Fatimah bint Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr)


Mūsá al-Kādhim (Twelver successor)
Ismā‘īl ibn Ja‘far (Ismaili successor)
Abdullah Al-Aftah, Ishaq, 'Ali al-Uraidhi, al-Abbas, Muhammad, Fatimah, Umm Farwah, Asmaa

D:\Articles from Internet\Jafar_al-Sadiq_files\155px-Panjetan.jpg

Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir ·
Musa (Twelver) · Ismail (Ismaili)

Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق) (702-765 C.E. or 17th Rabī‘ al-Awwal 83 AH - 25th Shawwāl 148 AH) is believed by the Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a Muslims to be the sixth infallible Imam (to Nizari, fifth), or spiritual leader and successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is the last Imam recognized by both Ismaili and Twelver Shi'a sects and the dispute over who was to succeed him led to a division within Shi'a Islam.

Al-Sadiq is said to be highly respected by both Shia and Sunni Muslims for his great Islamic scholarship, pious character, and academic contributions. Although he is perhaps most famous as the founder of Shia fiqh, known as Ja'fari jurisprudence, he had many other accomplishments. As well as being an imam on the shia chain, his presence also graces the Naqshbandi Sufi chain. He was a polymath: an astronomer, alchemist, Imam, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, writer, philosopher, physician, physicist and scientist. He was also the teacher of the famous chemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), and of Abu Hanifa, founder of a Sunni Madh'hab.

Birth and family life

Ja'far al-Sadiq was born in Medina to Umm Farwah bint Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr on 20 April 702 AD (17 Rabi' al-Awwal, 83 AH). He has the same birthday as that of Muhammad.

Ja'far Al-Sadiq has three titles; they are As-Sadiq, Al-Fadil, and At-Tahir. His father, Muhammad al-Baqir (the fifth Shi’ah Imam), was much happy and pleased by the birth of his son. His mother, Umm Farwa, was the granddaughter of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, who was one of the companions of Ali.

Ja'far al-Sadiq was 34 years old when his father, Muhammad "al-Baqir" was killed and he inherited the Imamate.

Marriage and offspring

Jaf'ar married Fatima Al-Hassan a descendant of Imam Hassan who bore him two sons Isma'il ibn Jafar (the Ismaili Imām-designate) and Abd-Allah.

Following his wifes death Al-Sadiq purchased a slave of African origin, Hamidah Khātūn (Arabic: همده خاتون), freed her, trained her as an Islamic scholar, and married her[citation needed]. She bore Mūsá al-Kāżim (the Twelver Imām-designate) and was revered by the Shī‘ah, especially by women, for her wisdom.

Scholarly attainments

As a child, Ja'far Al-Sadiq studied under his grandfather, Ali ibn Husayn. After his grandfather's death, he studied under and accompanied his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, until Muhammad al-Baqir died in 733.

Ja'far Al-Sadiq became well versed in Islamic sciences, including Hadith, Sunnah, and the Quran. In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Ja'far Al-Sadiq was also an adept in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, anatomy, alchemy and other subjects.

The foremost Islamic alchemist, Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, known in Europe as Geber, was Ja'far Al-Sadiq's most prominent student. Ja'far Al-Sadiq was known for his liberal views on learning, and was keen to debate with scholars of different faiths and of different beliefs.

Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man was an Islamic scholar and Jurist. He was a student of Ja'far Al-Sadiq, as was Imam Malik, who quotes 12 hadiths from Imam Jafar Sadiq in his famous Muwwata..

  • Scholars believed to have studied extensively with Ja'far Al-Sadiq:
  1. Jabir Ibn Hayyan - known in Europe as Geber, a great alchemist.
  2. Musa al-Kazim - his son, the seventh Shi’ah Imam according to the Twelvers
  3. Isma'il ibn Jafar - his son, the seventh Shi'ah Imam according to the Ismaili
  • Sunni scholars who either attended Ja'far Al-Sadiq's lectures or studied with him:
  1. Abu Hanifa - founder of the Hanafi school of thought.
  2. Malik ibn Anas - founder of the Maliki school of thought.
  • Others that attended lectures by Ja'far Al-Sadiq:
  1. Wasil ibn Ata - founder of the Mutazilite school of thought.


Ja'far al-Sadiq developed Ja'fari jurisprudence at about the same time its Sunni legal fiqh counterparts were being codified. It was distinguished from Sunni law "on matters regarding inheritance, religious taxes, commerce, and personal status."

Under the Umayyad rulers

Ja'far Al-Sadiq lived in violent times. Ja'far Al-Sadiq was considered by many followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib to be the sixth Shi'a imam, however, the Shi'ahs were considered heretics and rebels by the Umayyad caliphs. Many of Ja'far Al-Sadiq's relatives had died at the hands of the Umayyad. Shortly after his father's death, Ja'far Al-Sadiq's uncle, Zayd bin Ali led a rebellion against the Umayyads. Ja'far Al-Sadiq did not participate, but many of his kinsmen, including his uncle, were killed, and others were punished by the Umayyad caliph. There were other rebellions during these last years of the Umayyad, before the Abbasids succeeded in grasping the caliphate and establishing the Abbasid dynasty in 750 CE, when Ja'far Al-Sadiq was forty-eight years old.

Many rebel factions tried to convince Ja'far al-Sadiq to support their claims. Ja'far Al-Sadiq evaded their requests without explicitly advancing his own claims. He is said to burned their letters (letters promising him the caliphate) commenting, "This man is not from me and cannot give me what is in the province of Allah". Ja'far Al-Sadiq's prudent silence on his true views is said to have established Taqiyya as a Shi'a doctrine. Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one put oneself or others in danger.

The incidents and difficulties, which come into human life can, measure and find out the extent of his energy and faith. The difficulties, which cropped up in the life of Ja'far Al-Sadiq and the patience and forbearance, which, he showed towards them, illuminated his personality and worth. Howsoever they (enemies) abused and teased him he showed patience and forbearance and admonished them. He never cursed or used foul language about them.

Under the Abbasid rulers

The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their claim to descent from Muhammad's uncle Abbas, were extremely suspicious of Ja'far, whom many considered to have a better claim to the caliphate. Ja'far was watched closely and, occasionally, imprisoned to cut his ties with his followers. Ja'far endured the persecution patiently and continued his study and writing wherever he found himself.

He died on 14 December, 765. He was poisoned by Al-Mansur, and as Shia's believe, became a martyr, like the Shi'a Imams before him. He is buried in Madinah, in the famous Jannatul Baqee' cemetery.


After Ja'far al-Sadiq's death during the reign of the ‘Abbāsids, various Shī‘ī groups organised in secret opposition to their rule. Among them were the supporters of the proto-Ismā‘īlī community, of whom the most prominent group were called the "Mubārakiyyah".

There are hadīth which state that Ismā‘īl ibn Ja‘far "al-Mubārak" would be heir to the Imamate, as well as those that state Mūsā al-Kādhim was to be the heir. However, Ismā‘īl predeceased his father.

Some of the Shī‘ah claimed Ismā‘īl had not died, but rather gone into hiding, but the proto-Ismā‘īlī group accepted his death and therefore that his eldest son, Muammad ibn Ismā‘īl, was now Imām. Muammad remained in contact with this "Mubārakiyyah" group, most of whom resided in Kūfah.

In contrast, Twelvers don't believe that Ismā‘īl was ever given the nass ("designation of the Imamate"), but they acknowledge that this was the popular belief among the people at the time[11]. Both Shaykh Tusi and Shaykh al-Sadūq did not believe that the divine designation was changed, arguing that if matters as important as Imāmate were subject to change, then the basic fundamentals of belief should also be subject to change. Thus Twelvers accept that Mūsá al-Kāżim was the only son who was ever designated for Imāmate.

This is the initial point of divergence between the proto-Twelvers and the proto-Ismā‘īlī. This disagreement over the proper heir to Ja‘far has been a point of contention between the two groups ever since. The split among the Mubārakiyyah came with Muammad's death. The majority of the group denied his death; they recognised him as the Mahdi. The minority believed in his death and would eventually emerge in later times as the imid Ismā‘īlī, ancestors to all modern groups.


1. Whoever attacks a matter without knowledge cuts off his own nose.

2. Intellect is the guide of the believer.

3. The perfection of intellect is in three (things): humbleness for God, good certainty, and silence except for good.

4. Ignorance is in three (things): Arrogance, the intensity of dispute, and the ignorance about God.

5. Certainly, knowledge is a lock and its key is the question.

6. When the believer becomes angry, his anger should not take him out of the truth; and when he becomes satisfied, his satisfaction should not bring him into falsehood.

7. Some manners of the ignorant are: the answer before he hears, the opposition before he understands, and the judgment with what he does not know.


Someone once asked Ja'far Al-Sadiq to show him God. The Imam replied, "Look at the sun." The man replied that he could not look at the sun because it was too bright.
Ja'far Al-Sadiq replied: "If you cannot see the created, how can you expect to see the creator?"


  • Muhammed Al-Husain Al-Mudaffar, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq.
  • Sayyid Mahdi as-Sadr, THE AHLUL-BAYT Ethical Role-Models.
  • Mohammad Hussein il Adeeb, The Brief History of the Fourteen Infallibales.


Ibrahim al-Fazari

Ibrahim al-Fazari

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Habib ibn Sulaiman ibn Samura ibn Jundab al-Fazari (Arabic / Persian: أبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن حبيب بن سليمان بن سمورة بن جندب الفزاري) was an 8th century Muslim mathematician and astronomer of either Arab or Persian background.

He was the mathematician and astronomer at the Abbasid court of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. He is not to be confused with his son Mohammad al-Fazari, also an Astronomer. He composed various astronomical writings (on the astrolabe, on the armillary spheres, on the calendar).

The Caliph ordered him and his son to translate the Indian Astronomical text, The Sindhind along with Yaqub ibn Tāriq, which was completed in Baghdad about 750 CE, and entitled Az-Zīj ‛alā Sinī al-‛Arab. This translation was possibly the vehicle by means of which the Hindu numerals were transmitted from India to Islam.

He died in 777AD.


1. ^ Scott L. Montgomery. Science in Translation: movements of knowledge through cultures and time. p. 81.

2. ^ Ervin Lewis, Mildred Bain, From Freedom to Freedom: African roots in American soils: selected readings

3. ^ E. S. Kennedy, A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables, (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 46, 2), Philadelphia, 1956, pp. 2, 7, 12 (zijes no. 2, 28, 71).



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Calid is a medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled).

Khalid ibn Yazid

In alchemy, Calid often refers to a historical figure, Khalid ibn Yazid (died 704 CE). He was an Umayyad prince, a brother of Muawiyah II who was briefly caliph. Prince Khalid lost the chance of inheriting the title, but took an interest in the study of alchemy, in Egypt, facilitating translations into Arabic of the existing literature. It is to this Khalid that later allusions to Calid rex (King Calid) refer.

Attributions to Calid

It is contested whether the attributions to Khalid ibn Yazid of alchemical writing are justified. A popular legend has him consulting a Byzantine monk Marianos (Morienus the Greek). The Liber de compositione alchimiae, which was the first alchemical work translated from Arabic to Latin was purportedly an epistle of Marianos to Khalid.

Another traditional attribution is of the Liber Trium Verborum. Forms as Calid filius Ysidri attempt to distinguish ibn Yazid from others named Calid. Calid filius Hahmil certainly intends ibn Umail. There is a Calid filius Jaici mentioned by Jean-Jacques Manget, who includes an attributed Liber Secretorum Artis in his 1702 compilation Bibliotheca Curiosa Chemica.


Khalid is attested as a book collector, by Ibn al-Nadim; though it was contested by ibn Khaldun that he founded a library.